Components of endurance training explained
The types of endurance are Aerobic endurance, Anaerobic endurance, Speed endurance and Strength endurance. A sound basis of aerobic endurance is fundamental for all events.
Aerobic means ‘with oxygen’. During aerobic work the body is working at a level that the demands for oxygen and fuel can be met by the body’s intake. The only waste products formed are carbon dioxide and water. These are removed as sweat and by breathing out.
Aerobic endurance can sub-divided as follows:
* Short aerobic – 2 minutes to 8 minutes (lactic/aerobic)
* Medium aerobic – 8 minutes to 30 minutes (mainly aerobic)
* Long aerobic – 30 minutes + (aerobic)
Aerobic endurance is developed through the use of continuous and interval running.
The aerobic threshold, point at which anaerobic energy pathways start to operate, is considered to be around 75% of maximum heart rate. This is approximately 20 beats lower than the anaerobic threshold.
Anaerobic means ‘without oxygen’. During anaerobic work, involving maximum effort, the body is working so hard that the demands for oxygen and fuel exceed the rate of supply and the muscles have to rely on the stored reserves of fuel. In this case waste products accumulate, the chief one being lactic acid. The muscles, being starved of oxygen, take the body into a state known as oxygen debt.
The body’s stored fuel soon runs out and activity ceases – painfully. Activity will not be resumed until the lactic acid is removed and the oxygen debt repaid. Fortunately the body can resume limited activity after even only a small proportion of the oxygen debt has been repaid.
Since lactic acid is produced the correct term for this pathway is lactic anaerobic energy pathway. The alactic anaerobic pathway is the one in which the body is working anaerobically but without the production of lactic acid. This pathway can exist only so long as the fuel actually stored in the muscle lasts, approximately 4 seconds at maximum effort.
Anaerobic endurance can be sub-divided as follows:
* Short anaerobic – less than 25 seconds (mainly alactic)
* Medium anaerobic – 25 seconds to 60 seconds (mainly lactic)
* Long anaerobic – 60 seconds to 120 seconds (lactic + aerobic)
Anaerobic endurance can be developed by using repetition methods of relatively high intensity work with limited recovery.
The anaerobic threshold, the point at which lactic acid starts to accumulate in the muscles, is considered to be somewhere between 85% and 90% of your maximum heart rate. This is approximately 20 beats high than the aerobic threshold. Your anaerobic threshold can be determined with anaerobic threshold testing.
Speed endurance is used to develop the co-ordination of muscle contraction in the climate of endurance. Repetition methods are used with a high number of sets, low number of repetitions per set and an intensity greater than 85% with distances covered from 60% to 120% of racing distance. Competition and time trials can be used in the development of speed endurance.
Strength endurance is used to develop the athlete’s capacity to maintain the quality of their muscles‘ contractile force in a climate of endurance. All athletes need to develop a basic level of strength endurance. Examples of activities to develop strength endurance are – circuit training, weight training, hill running, harness running, Fartlek etc.
source: article by the late David Spence
View further Training articles
- The Need for Sleep
- Ten Mistakes Endurance Athletes Make
- Ten Mistakes Endurance Athletes Make – Part 2
- Timing your Workout
- Components of endurance training explained
- Build Rest and Recovery Into Your Fitness Programme
- The cornerstones of training
- In the long run – You`ll find endurance
- Six Building Blocks of Distance Running
- Six Building Blocks of Distance Running – Part 2